Scientific name: Punica granatum L.
English Name: Pomegranate
Local Name: Anar
Arabic Name: Rumman
Habit & Habitat: Tree, cultivated in the area.
Part used: Fruit
References from Holy Quran:
*Surah Al-An‘âm Verse. # 99: And out of the datepalm and its spathe come forth clusters of dates hanging low and near and gardens of grapes, olive and pomegranates, each similar (in kind) yet different (in variety and taste). Look at their fruits when they begin to bear and the ripeness thereof. Verily! In these things there are signs for people who believe.
*Surah Al-An‘âm Verse. # 141: It is He Who produceth gardens, with trellises and without, and dates, and tilth with produce of all kinds, and olives and pomegranates, similar (in kind) and different (in variety): eat of their fruit in their season, but render the dues that are proper on the day that the harvest is gathered. But waste not by excess: for Allah loveth not the wasters.
*Surah Ar-Rahman Verse. # 68-69: And your Lord inspired to the bee, “Take for yourself among the mountains, houses, and among the trees and [in] that which they construct. Then eat from all the fruits and follow the ways of your Lord laid down [for you].” There emerges from their bellies a drink, varying in colors, in which there is healing for people. Indeed in that is a sign for a people who give thought.
References from Ahadith:
*Hazrat Anas bin Malik (Radiyallahu Anhu) narrated that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, “There is not a pomegranate which does not have a pip from one of the pomegranates of the Garden (of Jannah) in it.”.
*Hazrat Ali bin Abi Talib (Radiyallahu Anhu) narrated that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wassallam) said, “Pomegranate and its rind strengthen digestion (stomach)”.
Distribution in world:
S.E. Europe to E. Asia-Himalayas. (China; Egypt; Ethiopia; Europe; India; Iraq; Israel; Java; Malaya; Mexico; Kurdistan; Peru; Spain; Turkey; US; Venezuela)
Sugars, Vit. C and Iron from fruit juice. Tannic acid from rind. Alkaloid pelletierine from bark.
The major class of phytochemical present in pomegranate is the polyphenols and includes flavonoids, condensed tannins and hydrolysable tannins. Hydrolysable tannins are predominant polyphenols found in pomegranate juice and account for 92% of its antioxidant activity. Pomegranate seeds are rich in sugars, polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids, vitamins, polysaccharides, polyphenols and minerals and have high antioxidant activity. When crushed and dried, the seeds produce an oil with 80% punicic acid, the 18-carbon fatty acid, along with the isoflavone genistein, the phytoestrogen coumestrol and the sex steroid estrone. The seed coat of the fruit contains delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3,5- diglucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, pelargonidin-3- glucoside and pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside with delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside being the major anthocyanin in pomegranate juice.
Bahria University, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan
Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Department of Arabic, Islamic Studies and Research Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KPK, Pakistan.