Note: More ahadith have been posted. Make your own choice. But don’t cherry pick hadith for sectarian purposes or sect, Be Muslim brothers & sisters, Wise & Balanced.
All of the hadith below are like a puzzle if you read them in continuous flow, you will get the big picture and clear picture. All of them are in support of each other. Look at it like big picture.
Sawab of Arafah day fast (roza)(Youm-e-Arafat)
Sohail bin Saad (Razi-Allah-Ta’ala unho) has narrated the saying of Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihi Wa’Sallam) that if someone fasts on Arafah day (Youm-e-Arafah) 9th Dhul-hijjah, then Allah (Subhana Wa’Ta’ala) because of the greatness of that day will forgive his/her sins of 2 years, previous year and next year.
Therefore, Bayhaqi has narrated this Hadith of Holy Prophet Mohammed (Sallallaho Alaihi Wa’Sallam) that whoever fasts on Arfa day (Youm-e-Arfa) 9th Dhul-hijjah then its reward/sawab will be equal to 1000 days of fasting.
(Hadith Books : Al-Bayhaqi , Al-Targheeb)
Abu Hurairah (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) forbade fasting on the day of Arafah for the one who is actually at Arafah (i.e. performing Hajj). Related by the five Imams except for At-Tirmidhi. Ibn Khuzaimah and al-Hakim graded it as Sahih.
(Bulugh al-Maram, Fasting, Book 5, Hadith 714)
Abu Qatadah (r.a) narrated that :
The Prophet said: “Fast the Day of Arafah, for indeed I anticipate that Allah will forgive (the sins) of the year after it, and the year before it.”
(Jami` at-Tirmidhi, The Book on Fasting, Vol. 2, Book 3, Hadith 749 – Grade: Daif/weak by Darussalam)
Narrated Uqbah ibn Amir:
The Prophet (ﷺ) said: The day of Arafah, the day of sacrifice, the days of tashriq are (the days of) our festival, O people of Islam. These are the days of eating and drinking.
(Sunan Abu Dawud, Book of Fasting (Kitab Al-Siyam), Book 13, Hadith 2413, – Grade: Sahih by Darussalam)
It was narrated that Qatadah bin Nu’man said:
“I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: ‘Whoever fasts the Day of ‘Arafah, his sins of the previous and following year will be forgiven.’”
(Sunan Ibn Majah, Fasting – كتاب الصيام , Vol. 1, Book 7, Hadith 1731 -Grade : Da’if by Darussalam)
It was narrated from Abu Qatadah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:
“Fasting on the Day of ‘Arafah, I hope from Allah, expiates for the sins of the year before and the year after.”
(Sunan Ibn Majah, Fasting – كتاب الصيا , Vol. 1, Book 7, Hadith 1730 – Grade : Sahih by Darussalam)
Umm al-Fadl (Allah be pleased with her) is reported to have said that some people among the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) were in doubt about fasting on the day of ‘Arafa and we were with him on that day. I (Umm al-Fadl) sent him a cup of milk and he was halting at ‘Arafa, and he drank that.
(Sahih Muslim, The Book of Fasting, Book 13, Hadith 141)
Narrated Maimuna (r.a):
The people doubted whether the Prophet (ﷺ) was fasting on the day of `Arafat or not, so I sent milk while he was standing at `Arafat, he drank it and the people were looking at him.
(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Fasting, Vol. 3, Book 31, Hadith 210)
Ibn Abi Najib narrated from his father who said:
“Ibn Umar was asked about fasting (the Day of) Arafah (at Arafat). He said: ‘I performed Hajj with the Prophet (ﷺ), and he did not fast it, and with Abu Bakr, and he did not fast it, and with Umar, and he did not fast it, and with Uthman, and he did not fast it. I do no fast it, nor order it nor forbid it.”
(Jami` at-Tirmidhi, The Book on Fasting, Vol. 2, Book 3, Hadith 751)
Abu Qatada al-Ansari (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was asked about his fasting. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) felt annoyed. Thereupon ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) said:
We are pleased with Allah as the Lord, with Islam as our Code of Life, with Muhammad (ﷺ) as the Messenger and with our pledge (to you for willing and cheerful submission) as a (sacred) commitment. He was then asked about perpetual fasting, whereupon he said: He neither fasted nor did he break it, or he did not fast and he did not break it. He was then asked about fasting for two days and breaking one day.
He (the Holy Prophet) said: And who has strength enough to do it? He was asked about fasting for a day and breaking for two days, whereupon he said: May Allah bestow upon us strength to do it. He was then asked about fasting for a day and breaking on the other, whereupon he said: That is the fasting of my brother David (peace be upon him). He was then asked about fasting on Monday, whereupon he said: It was the day on which I was born. on which I was commissioned with prophethood or revelation was sent to me, (and he further) said: Three days’ fasting every month and of the whole of Ramadan every year is a perpetual fast.
He was asked about fasting on the day of ‘Arafa (9th of Dhu’I-Hijja), whereupon he said: It expiates the sins of the preceding year and the coming year. He was asked about fasting on the day of ‘Ashura (10th of Muharram), whereupon be said: It expiates the sins of the preceding year.
(Sahih Muslim, The Book of Fasting, Book 13, Hadith 253)
I think those who were at Arafat, they didn’t fast but for others who are not at Arafah, I see there is sawab (good deed) according to some hadith above. Allah knows best.