There are many aspects of belief in which one who adheres to Islam must have firm conviction. From those aspects, the most important are six, known as the “Six Articles of Faith (Emaan)”.
1) Belief in Allah – Oneness of God (Tauheed):
Islam upholds strict monotheism and belief in God forms the heart of their faith. Islam teaches belief in one God who neither gives birth nor was born Himself, and has no share in His caretaking of the world. He alone gives life, causes death, brings good, causes affliction, and provides sustenance for His creation. Allah in Islam is the sole Creator, Lord, Sustainer, Ruler, Judge, and Savior of the universe.
He has no equal in His qualities and abilities, such as knowledge and power. All worship, veneration and homage is to be directed to Allah and none else. Any breach of these concepts negates the basis of Islam.
2) Belief in the Angels (Al-Malaa’ikah):
Adherents to Islam must believe in the Unseen world as mentioned in the Quran. From this world are the angels’ emissaries of Allah, each assigned with a specific task. They have no free-will or ability to disobey; it is their very nature to be Allah’s faithful servants. Angels are not to be taken as demigods or objects of praise or veneration; they are mere servants of Allah obeying His every command.
> Satan/Iblis/Shaitan was from species of Jinn who were created from fire, he was raised to the status of Angels but still he was a jinn and jinns possess free-will and choice. Some of the believing jinns call Satan jinn “arrogant & rebellious”.
> Whereas Angels (Malaa’ikah) are created from light. And they don’t disobey any command of Allah.
3) Belief in the Prophets, Messengers and Last Prophet:
> From Prophet Adam (عليه السلام) to Prophet Mohammed (صلى الله عليه وآله وصحبه وسلم), 124,000 Prophets and Messengers.
> All Prophets and Messengers of Allah preached monotheism, oneness of GOD (Tauheed) from first person and Prophet Adam (عليه السلام) to Holy Prophet Mohammed (صلى الله عليه وآله وصحبه وسلم).
Islam is a universal and inclusive religion. Muslims believe in the prophets, not just the Prophet Mohammed (صلى الله عليه وسلم), may the mercy and blessings of Allah be upon him, but the Hebrew prophets, including Abraham and Moses, as well as the prophets of the New Testament, Jesus, and John the Baptist. Islam teaches Allah did not send prophets to Jews and Christians alone, rather He sent prophets to all nations in the world with one central message: worship Allah alone. Muslim must believe in all prophets sent by God mentioned in the Quran, without making any distinction between them.
Prophet Mohammed (صلى الله عليه وآله وصحبه وسلم) was sent with the final message, and there is no prophet or messenger to come after him. His message is final and eternal, and through him God completed His Message to humanity.
4) Belief in the The Divine Revelations (Books)
Muslims believe in all books that God has sent down to humanity through His prophets. These sacred texts include those revealed to Abraham/Ibrahim (عليه السلام), the Taurat (Orginial) of Prophet Moses/Musa (عليه السلام), the Zabur (Original) of Prophet David/Dawud (عليه السلام), and the Injeel (Original) of Prophet Jesus/Essa (عليه السلام), and final & complete Holy book the Qur’an for entire humanity for all times. These books all had the same source (Allah), the same message, and all were revealed in truth. This does not mean that they have been preserved in truth.
Muslims (and many other Jewish and Christian scholars and historians) find that the books in existence today are not the original scriptures, which in fact have been lost, changed, and/or translated over and over again, losing the original message. As Christians view the New Testament to fulfill and complete the Old Testament, Muslims believe that the Prophet Mohammed (صلى الله عليه وآله وصحبه وسلم) received revelations from Allah through the angel Gabriel (r.a) to correct human error that had entered into the scriptures and doctrine of Judaism, Christianity and all other religions.
This revelation is the Quran, revealed in the Arabic language, and found today in its pristine form. It seeks to guide mankind in all walks of life; spiritual, temporal, individual and collective. It contains directions for the conduct of life, relates stories and parables, describes the attributes of Allah, and speaks of the best rules to govern social life.
It has directions for everybody, every place, and for all time. Millions of people today have memorized the Quran, and all copies of the Quran found today and in the past are identical. Allah has promised that He will guard the Quran from change until the end of times, so that Guidance be clear to humanity and the message of all the prophets be available for those who seek it.
5) Belief in Life after Death:
Muslims believe that a day will come when all of creation will perish and resurrected in order to be judged for their deeds: The Day of Judgment. On this day, all will gather in the presence of Allah and each individual will be questioned about their life in the world and how they lived it.
Those who held correct beliefs about Allah and life, and followed their belief with righteous deeds will enter Paradise. As for those who fell into polytheism and didn’t repent, they will enter Hellfire.
Allah’s infinite justice is absolute and perfect. On the Day of Judgment, all deeds will be revealed and everyone will be justly treated. We will not enter Paradise because of our deeds alone, but by Allah’s mercy.
6) Belief in the Divine Decree (Qadhaa’ and Qadr):
Islam asserts that God has full power and knowledge of all things, and that nothing happens except by His Will and with His full knowledge. What is known as divine decree, fate, or “destiny” is known in Arabic as al-Qadr. The destiny of every creature is already known to Allah.
This belief however does not contradict with the idea of man’s free-will to choose his course of action. Allah does not force us to do anything; we can choose whether to obey or disobey Him. But he has given choice and free-will to you to choose your path. Our choice is known to Allah before we even do it. We do not know what our destiny is; but God knows the fate of all things.
There may be things that happen in this world that we do not understand, but we should trust that God has wisdom in all things.